PDS >> Efficacy Models >> CNS/Pain

CNS/Pain In vivo Models for Drug Discovery


The central nervous system (CNS) is prone to many diseases and pain-related disorders, especially prevalent during aging. The importance of CNS disorders is indicated by the severity of many of the diseases associated with it, these diseases include depression, epilepsy, psychosis, multiple sclerosis, and many other common, yet difficult-to-treat diseases.

Pharmacology Discovery Services has conducted in vivo testing for CNS and pain disorders for both efficacy and side-effect profiling for over 30 years.  All CNS/Pain in vivo models are validated in a dose-dependent manner with approved benchmark positive controls to assure high-quality, reproducible data is provided to our clients.  To meet the needs of your specific CNS/Pain drug discovery project we also have the flexibility and expertise to develop custom in vivo models.

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CNS In Vivo Models

Our experience with CNS models includes both side effect profiling (modified Irwin testing, MTD, locomotor activity and roto-rod coordination) and efficacy models of human CNS disorders.  Some of our validated CNS efficacy models include epilepsy, affective disorders, neuroleptic and multiple sclerosis. 

Pain In Vivo Models

The in vivo pain models we offer include acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain along with translational models of pain such as osteoarthritis and bone cancer pain.  Additionally, we offer several pain-associated behavioral measurements such as mechanical allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as cold allodynia. 

In Vivo Pharmacology Expertise

Each of our Technical Directors specializes in selected therapeutic areas so they may provide expert scientific support to our clients.  This involves consulting with clients to identify an appropriate model to meet their scientific objectives, designing studies and writing the custom protocols and statements of work (SOWs) to meet quality assurance guidelines.  They also work closely with our Study Directors to assure that SOWs are clear and that all methods and timelines are feasible.  Our laboratory staff also averages 15 years of experience conducting in vivo pharmacology studies.  


CNS Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Anxiety, Elevated Plus-Maze 508900 Rat 210
Depression, Forced Swim Test 527520 Mouse 185
Depression, Forced Swim Test 527540 Rat 280
Depression, Tail Suspension 527400 Mouse 185
Pruritus (Itch), BAM 8-22-Induced 509870 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), Chloroquine-Induced 509800 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), Compound 48/80-Induced 509820 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), Histamine-Induced 509850 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), Serotonin-Induced 509860 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), SLIGRL-NH2-Induced 509840 Mouse 230
Pruritus (Itch), Substance P-Induced 509810 Mouse 230
Seizure, Maximal Electroshock 523990 Mouse 185
Seizure, Maximal Electroshock 524020 Rat 225
Seizure, Metrazole 525010 Mouse 185
Seizure, Pro-Electroshock 526000 Mouse 185
Seizure, Pro-Metrazole 526500 Mouse 185



Acute Pain Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Hot Plate 506600 Rat 265
Post-operative Pain 505700 Rat 400
Tail flick 506020 Mouse 180
Tail flick 506040 Rat 220



Inflammatory Pain Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Formalin-Induced 504000 Mouse 215
Formalin-Induced 504010 Rat 280
Mechanical Allodynia, Carrageenan-Induced 503940 Rat 325
Mechanical Allodynia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced 503950 Rat 325
Thermal Hyperalgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced 503955 Rat 325
Visceral Pain, Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing 503900 Mouse 190
Visceral Pain, Phenylquinone (PQ) Writhing 505000 Mouse 190



Neuropathic Pain Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Bennett Model, Chronic Constriction Injury 504100 Rat 500
Chung Model, L5.L6 Spinal Nerve Ligation 504200 Rat 600
Diabetic Pain, Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced 504600 Rat 450
L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation 504250 Mouse 650



Translational Pain Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Bone Cancer Pain, MRMT 504500 Rat 570
Osteoarthritis Pain, Mono Sodium Iodoacetate-Induced 503960 Rat 460
Paclitaxel Chemotherapy-Induced 504400 Rat 400



Liability Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Gastrointestinal Motility 537920 Mouse 190
Gastrointestinal Motility 537940 Rat 260
Locomotor Activity 563000 Mouse 225
Locomotor Activity 563020 Rat 280
Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), Autonomic Signs 560000 Mouse 205
Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), Autonomic Signs 561600 Rat 265
Modified Irwin Screen 509500 Mouse 280
Modified Irwin Screen 509600 Rat 380
Respiration, Blood Gases 576650 Rat 480
Respiration, Rate, Tidal Volume, Minute Volume and Blood Gases 576660 Rat 505
Roto-Rod 562010 Mouse 185
Roto-Rod 562600 Rat 250