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In vivo Early Safety Assessment



In Vivo Safety Evaluation During Drug Discovery

For early safety and toxicity assessment, Pharmacology Discovery Services has over 30 years of experience conducting in vivo safety and early toxicity testing. Combined with the in vitro pharmacology and cell based in vitro toxicity services from our Partner Lab, Eurofins Pharma Discovery Services, our in vivo safety services can provide a comprehensive risk profile for your drug candidates at a stage when changes can still be met without a major impact to your project

We offer a complete list of qualified safety related in vivo models to detect the most commonly observed adverse events in CNS, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, metabolic, and gastrointestinal functions using a broad panel of industry-standard outcome measures to build a toxicokinetic (TK) profile.  We can also provide specialized models, such as our emesis model, to address specific project needs.

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Validated Safety and Toxicity In Vivo Models Include:

  • Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD)
  • 7-day or 28-day tox (non-GLP)
  • PK + tissue exposure, urinary excretion
  • Cardiovascular
    • Blood pressure and heart rate
    • Postural hypotension and tilt response
    • Arrhythmia and QTc interval
  • Neurological and behavioral effects
    • Functional Observation Battery (Irwin) profile
    • Convulsions
    • Autonomic signs
    • Locomotor activity and coordination (Roto-rod)
  • Gastrointestinal and Metabolic effects
    • GI motility
    • Emesis
    • Gastric effects
    • Body weight and food consumption
  • Hepatic and renal function
  • Respiratory monitoring
  • Ancillary services: clinical chemistry, hematology, blood gases, gross pathology, histology and macroscopic and microscopic necropsy


In Vivo Safety Models
Model Name Item Number Species Price/Animal ($USD)
Antipyretic Test 508700 Mouse 200
Bleeding Time 510000 Mouse 180
Body Temperature, Safety non-GLP 511000 Rat 220
Bradykinin Potentiation 511300 Rat 260
Catalepsy 516510 Rat 205
Clotting Time 522500 Rat 370
Estrogen Agonism 531000 Mouse 225
Estrogen Antagonism 531500 Mouse 225
Food Intake 531700 Mouse 200
Food Intake 531900 Rat 240
GABAA Agonism/Antagonism 532010 Mouse 185
Glucose, Blood, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) 540100 Mouse 240
Glucose, Blood, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) 540110 Rat 280
Glucose, Serum, Fasted 539000 Mouse 175
Glutamate, Agonism/Antagonism 542010 Mouse 180
Glutamate, Kainate Agonism/Antagonism 543010 Mouse 180
Glutamate, NMDA Agonism/Antagonism 544010 Mouse 180
Glycine, Strychnine-Sensitive, Agonism/Antagonism 545010 Mouse 180
Hematology, Blood Cell Examination (HCT, HGB, PLT, RBC, WBC) 547510 Mouse 180
Hematology, Blood Chemistry, Serum 547550 Mouse 360
Locomotor Activity 563000 Mouse 225
Locomotor Activity 563020 Rats 280
Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), Autonomic Signs 560000 Mouse 205
Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), Autonomic Signs 561600 Rat 265
Modified Irwin Screen 509500 Mouse 280
Modified Irwin Screen 509600 Rat 380
Respiration, Blood Gases 576650 Rats 480
Respiration, Rate, Tidal Volume, Minute Volume and Blood Gases 576660 Rats 505
Roto-Rod 562010 Mouse 185
Roto-Rod 562600 Rat 250
Seizure, Maximal Electroshock 523990 Mouse 185
Seizure, Maximal Electroshock 524020 Rat 225
Seizure, Metrazole 525010 Mouse 185
Seizure, Pro-Electroshock 526000 Mouse 185
Seizure, Pro-Metrazole 526500 Mouse 185
Sleep Time, Hexobarbital Potentiation 578010 Mouse 180